Regulated medical waste (RMW)—also known as “biohazardous” or “infectious medical” waste—refers to wastes that contain blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materials like sharps, as a result posing a risk of transmitting infection.
There are several main categories of RMWs, including:
- Pathological and anatomical wastes
- Blood, body fluids, and OPIMs
- Microbiological waste
- Isolation wastes
- Animal waste
To learn more about each category of regulated medical waste and how they should be disposed, watch the video or read the transcript below.
How OSHA Defines RMW
According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), regulated medical waste is formally defined as being any waste that meets any 1 of the 5 conditions below:
- Liquid/semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials
- Items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed
- Items with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling
- Microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials
- Contaminated sharps
Pathological & Anatomical Waste
Generally speaking, pathological and anatomical waste is considered to be waste that comes from human body parts, tissues, and organs.
It’s important to note that standards can differ from state to state—in some, hair, teeth, and nails aren’t considered pathological waste.
The Difference Between Pathological & Anatomical Waste
Although both waste types come from the human body, there are differences between the two.
|Pathological Waste||Anatomical Waste|
|Typically, pathological waste is smaller, referring to the very small tissue sections and body materials coming from surgical procedures and biopsies that get examined in laboratories.||Anatomical waste is typically the larger types of human waste.
Common examples include organs, tissue, and body parts, which can require special handling compared to other pathological wastes.
Blood, Body Fluids, & Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM)
Besides blood and blood components or products, such as serum and plasma, OSHA defines a range of different wastes as an other potentially infectious material:
- Cerebrospinal fluid
- Synovial fluid
- Pleural fluid
- Pericardial fluid
- Peritoneal fluid
- Amniotic fluid
- Vaginal secretions
- Saliva in dental procedures
- Body fluids containing blood
Microbiological waste is most common in laboratories where waste originates from clinical or research procedures involving communicable infectious agents.
This category includes waste types ranging from infectious agents to biologicals and microorganisms.
Types of Microbiological Waste
There’s a wide range of infectious agents, biologicals, and microorganisms that are defined as microbiological waste:
- Culture dishes and transfer devices
- Inoculate and mixed cultures
- Discarded cultures
Other microbiological wastes include live and attenuated vaccines containing organisms that are likely pathogenic to healthy people, and similarly discarded etiological agents and wastes from producing biologicals and antibiotics that have been contaminated by potentially pathogenic organisms.
Sharps is used as a blanket term for all types of waste that can puncture or lacerate the skin, such as a hypodermic needle or syringe.
Sharps are used throughout the medical industry in a variety of places and for a variety of reasons, making them one of the most common types of medical waste.
Specific Sharps Waste Types
An item is considered a sharp if it either can induce subdermal inoculation of infectious agents, or can penetrate the skin and puncture waste bags or cardboard boxes. Sharps types include:
- Hypodermic needles
- Capillary tubes
- Pasteur pipettes
- Razor & scalpel blades
- Retractable needles
- Heel lancers
- Needleless injection devices
Isolation Wastes from Highly-Communicable Diseases
Isolation wastes are generally defined as biological waste and any other materials contaminated with blood, excretion, or secretion from animals and humans who’ve been isolated to protect others from highly communicable diseases.
Common types of highly-communicable diseases include:
- Ebola virus
- Hepatitis A/B
- West Nile Virus
Besides all other RMW types, animal waste is separated out as an entirely different category. Animal waste types include:
- Body parts
- Production of biologicals
- Testing of pharmaceuticals
- Any other wastes exposed to an infectious agent
How to Dispose RMW
Although these types of medical waste are considered RMW, when it comes to medical waste disposal some RMW types need to be separated out first.
|Sharps Container||Red Bag/Container||Yellow/Black Container|
|Used sharps are required to be disposed in separate containers from other types of waste, and require special handling under OSHA & DOT.
It’s important to note microbiological waste that’s considered sharp should also be disposed in these containers.
|Red bags are used as a catchall for disposing biohazardous waste that contains potentially infectious substances like blood.
Among the various RMW types, this includes OPIMs, pathological waste, and microbiological waste.
|Yellow and black bins are used in more unique situations where chemotherapy waste needs to be disposed separately from other medical waste.
Yellow is only used if it’s “RCRA empty”, while black is for bulk. Wastes can include pathological waste, IV bags, and vials.
Have Regulated Medical Waste to Dispose?
Medical Waste Pros partners with reliable and compliant RMW disposal providers for the healthcare industry. Let us help you take care of your regulated medical waste by giving us a call at (888) 755-6370 or filling out our form for a free, no-obligation quote from a provider in your area.